Type 5 and 6 nasal septal deformities: Could we predict and prevent acute coronary syndrome attacks in the future?

Type 5 and 6 nasal septal deformities: Could we predict and prevent acute coronary syndrome attacks in the future?

Med Hypotheses. 2015 Aug 7;

Authors: Mladina R, Skitareli? N, Cari? T, Raguž M

Undisturbed nasal breathing is essential for normal breathing physiology as a whole. Nasal septal deformities (NSD) are well known as a factor which can remarkably and substantially affect the quality of nasal and pulmonary breathing. However, it is well known that type 5 and type 6 nasal septal deformities may cause only a moderate, unilateral nasal obstruction or none at all. The effects of nasal obstruction on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems have been well studied so far: right ventricle problems, ischemic heart diseases, sleep disorders, mucociliary clearance system disturbances, paranasal sinus pathology, have all been described as a result of impaired nasal breathing. The connection between the upper and lower respiratory systems has been recognized in allergic rhinitis and asthma as well, resulting in the united airways concept. Most recently, the ostensible connection between chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and acute myocardial infarction has been said to be proven. However, the results of this study might have not been well founded since there are no direct and clear proofs that CRS as a chronic inflammatory process has anything to do with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). On the other hand, a large international study on the incidence of NSD in CRS patients, based on the Mladina classification, showed that NSD were present in a high incidence and that the most frequent deformities were types 5 (36.18%) and 7 (29.92%). The vast majority of those types 7 consisted of types 3 and (again) types 5 or types 6 (76.32%). The fact that in CRS patients a remarkably high incidence of type 5 septal deformity can be seen, gives rise to thinking that this factor perhaps plays a role in the onset of ACS. Acute coronary syndrome is one of the leading causes of death all over the world. Traditional risk factors such as family history, overweight body, smoking, stress, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery calcium score, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein, homocysteine, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, as well as high-density lipoprotein functionality perhaps cannot account for the entire risk for incident coronary events. Several other potential risk factors have been identified in an effort to improve risk assessment for ACS. This article reviews one of them: the possible influence of an unusual, so far unknown predisposing factor: type 5 or type 6 nasal septal deformities. They have been found as pure, isolated types or as a part of combined nasal septal deformity (type 7).

PMID: 26277657 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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