Monoclonal Antibodies Anaphylaxis Risk For Severe Asthma Patients

Most monoclonal antibodies increase the risk of anaphylaxis in severe asthma patients, according to a report published in Clinical and Translational Allergy. The study found 4 out of 5 common mAbs were associated with an increased risk of anaphylaxis. Each of the therapies had a different risk profile. One monoclonal antibody – dupilumab – exhibited a very low risk. The patients in this study were mainly young and middle-aged adults.

What You Need to Know

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a type of medication designed to work on one specific target, in contrast to conventional medications that often affect more than one site within the body. They differ from polyclonal treatments by binding specifically to a single place (an epitope) on their target protein. Monoclonal antibodies are found naturally, produced by cloned B cells called hybridomas.

For those with severe asthma, there are Clinical Safety Issues. Any severe asthmatic who experiences an anaphylactic reaction due to food or insect allergy must be made aware that the use of mAbs may cause an adverse reaction for them.

Severe asthma patients receiving monoclonal antibodies need close monitoring due to increased anaphylaxis risk, the new study found.

The report, published in Clinical and Translational Allergy, found 4 out of 5 common mAbs were associated with a heightened anaphylaxis risk, though the risk varied from therapy to therapy.

Key Takeaways

  • Monoclonal antibodies work with the immune system.
  • mAbs target cancer cells, viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens.
  • They may be beneficial in autoimmune diseases in place of other immunosuppressive agents.
  • mAbs generally prevent allergic reactions, but for some people, may cause a severe adverse reaction.
  • Regular doses of antihistamines and/or epinephrine may be used with the monoclonal antibodies.

Common monoclonal antibodies include:

– omalizumab (trade names Xolair and Omeclamox and used for allergies to asthma and insect bites)

– mepolizumab (trade name Nucala, a newer monoclonal antibody. It is used for Severe Persistent Asthma in those who have moderate to severe allergic asthma and do not respond well to conventional treatments.)

What Are Monoclonal Antibodies?

Monoclonal antibodies are secreted proteins that neutralize a pathogen or an undesirable substance. They derive from monocytes and can bind to target the protein which is responsible for activating B-cells during immune response. They function as a tool to modify the progression of disease by slowing down the symptoms of autoimmune reactions.

Monoclonal Antibodies (MAbs) function to eliminate pathogens or unwanted toxins. They may have diagnostic as well as treatment potentials in autoimmune disease-related disorders.

The World Asthma Foundation thanks the six expert researchers for their insight into how normally beneficial Monoclonal Antibodies may cause Anaphylactic reactions in severe asthmatics.

Li L, Wang Z, Cui L, Xu Y, Guan K, and Zhao B. “Anaphylactic risk related to omalizumab, benralizumab, reslizumab, mepolizumab, and dupilumab.” Published online June 3, 2021. doi:10.1002/clt2.12038

Monoclonal antibodies
Monoclonal antibodies, PR image.